[88], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. [22], These tensions gradually undermined Augsburg, and paralysed institutions like the Imperial diet designed to resolve them peacefully. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. [15], These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. [98], Taken as a whole, the consequences of these two treaties can be divided into the internal political settlement and external territorial changes. Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. [103], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. France was now the chief Western power. In some areas in Europe, especially in Germany, the Thirty Years War had a devastating impact. The 30 Years War The 30 Years War was a political and religious war that lasted from 1618-1648. Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. The Thirty Years' War was one of the greatest and longest armed contests of the early modern period. For example, many of the earliest American wars were fought on American soil. Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. When the contending powers finally met in the German province of Westphalia to end the bloodshed, the balance of power in Europe had been radically changed. [108], Parish records show regular outbreaks of these were common for decades prior to 1618, but the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. A specially designed Malefizhaus, or 'crime house', was erected containing a torture chamber, whose walls were adorned with Bible verses, where the accused were interrogated. Jun 2nd 2011. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. AIDS The 30 years war. 2. This was exacerbated by several legal disputes over property, all of which were decided in favour of the Catholic Church. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. [55] Von Arnim was forced to lift the siege on 4 August, but three weeks later, Christian suffered another defeat at Wolgast. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". Director: James Clavell | Stars: Michael Caine , Omar Sharif , Florinda Bolkan , Nigel Davenport By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. [54], In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Straslund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. [72], Defeat at Nördlingen threatened Sweden's participation, leading Richelieu to intervene directly. Based on analysis of contemporary reports, less than 3% of civilian deaths were the result of military action; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). [92], In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. [114], The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. [43], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. Christian’s defeat and the Peace of Lübeck in 1629 finished Denmark as a European power, but Sweden’s Gustav II Adolf, having ended a four-year war with Poland, invaded Germany and won many German princes to his anti-Roman Catholic, anti-imperial cause. This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. A few days later, Ferdinand withdrew the Edict and signed the Peace of Prague, dissolving the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues, and creating a single Imperial army, although Saxony and Bavaria retained control of their own forces. [40], The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. Here, in the heartland of Europe, three denominations vied for dominance: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. This seemed confirmed when Tilly's Catholic League army occupied Halberstadt in early 1625. From the Bohemian rebellion to the Swedish intervention led by Gustavus Adolphus, from Denmark to the Palatinate, players can now recreate the Campaigns of Lützen, Nördlingen and Rocroi. [85], During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested to the Spanish they exchange Catalonia, currently occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by this, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain. [95], The Peace of Münster was the first to be signed on 30 January 1648; it was part of Westphalia because the provinces that made up the Dutch Republic were still technically part of the Spanish Netherlands and thus Imperial territories. [24], One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. [36], On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. During the Thirty Years' War of 1600s, a band of Protestant mercenaries peacefully coexist with German Catholic villagers in a hidden idyllic mountain valley untouched by war. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. [99] Sweden received an indemnity of five million thalers, the Imperial territories of Swedish Pomerania, and Prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; this gave them a seat in the Imperial Diet. The Thirty Years’ War was a major European war that occurred during the 17th century. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and Portuguese Restoration War. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. In 1938, CV Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. Regardless of religion, most German princes refused to support him and by early 1620 the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. [33], Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. Thirty Years' War synonyms, Thirty Years' War pronunciation, Thirty Years' War translation, English dictionary definition of Thirty Years' War. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. [100], The Peace was later denounced by Pope Innocent X, who regarded the bishoprics ceded to France and Brandenburg as property of the Catholic church, and thus his to assign. When the Eighty Years War restarted in April 1621, the Dutch provided Frederick military support to regain his lands, along with a mercenary army under Mansfeld paid for with English subsidies. The Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618 until 1648.Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden.In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war… Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War … Beginning in 1618, the Thirty Years’ War was, at heart, a struggle for constitutional and religious power within the Holy Roman Empire – Europe’s largest and most populous state. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. The Imperial army under Gallas retreated into Bohemia, pursued by Torstenson, whose victory at Jankau in March 1645 allowed him to threaten both Prague and Vienna. [79] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. They included separation of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, expansion of the French frontier into the Empire, and an end to Spanish military supremacy in Northern Europe. The French candidate, Charles I Gonzaga, was confirmed as Duke of Mantua; although Richelieu's representative, Cardinal Mazarin, agreed to evacuate Pinerolo, it was later secretly returned under an agreement with Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. [123] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. [96], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. Additionally, a 15 minute YouTube video … Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. Twentieth-century wars such as World Wars I and II, by contrast, were fought overseas; few Americans on the homefront saw any type of direct engagement during these. [113] Although suggested towns over-stated losses to avoid taxes, individual records show serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. The Thirty Years' War was a major conflict that occurred in Europe from1618 to1648. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. Despite the parties agreeing the Peace of Prague in 1635, fighting continued with Sweden and France on one side, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs on the other. Science & technology Jun 2nd 2011 edition. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion.  France (from 1635), Imperial alliance Denmark–Norway (1625–29) It entered the war against the emperor and against Spain on the side of Protestant allies. [76], These setbacks put increasing pressure on both Ferdinand and Spanish minister Olivares to make peace. Palatinate (until 1632) The Thirty Years' War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various reasons, ignited in 1618 over an attempt by the king of Bohemia (the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II) … In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested up to 60% of the population died.[15]. All across Europe, but mostly in central Germany WHO? The Thirty Years’ War was a major European war that occurred during the 17th century. There are four scenarios provided: the Full Campaign (14 turns), Early War (5 turns), Intervention (3 turns), and Apocalypse (5 turns). [101] It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Thirty Years' War… This provided an opportunity for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who invaded the Empire in 1630; backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. Overall, the struggle was between the Holy Roman Empire, which was Roman Catholic and Habsburg, and a network of Protestant towns and principalities that relied on the chief anti-Catholic powers of Sweden and the United Netherlands, which had at last thrown off the yoke of Spain after a struggle lasting 80 years. [48], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. “I hope to stay 30 more years,” he said. He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who despite his recent victories was concerned by the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious to make peace. Dutch leader Frederick Henry recaptured Breda in October, and three months later Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar destroyed an Imperial army at Rheinfelden. Sweden had control of the Baltic. While the infantry was supported by pikemen to fend off cavalry, the pikes were over time replaced by bayonets. One of the most prosperous areas of the Empire, Bohemia's electoral vote was also essential to ensuring Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Emperor, and Habsburg prestige required its recapture. The Thirty Years’ War was a dark page in European history that was associated with a remapping of the continent. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. [132] At the same time, it created the outlines of a Europe that persisted until 1815 and beyond; the nation-state of France, the beginnings of a unified Germany and separate Austro-Hungarian bloc, a diminished but still significant Spain, independent smaller states like Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, along with a Low Countries split between the Dutch Republic and what became Belgium in 1830. [79] Mazarin began seeking a negotiated peace; 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. [30] Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. [59], As ever, Richelieu's policy was to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. In an event known as the Third Defenestration of Prague, the two men and their secretary Philip Fabricius were thrown out of the castle windows, although all three survived. [17], After 1560, the Protestant cause was deeply divided by the growth of Calvinism, a Reformed faith not recognised by Augsburg; Lutheran states like Saxony viewed Calvinists in the Palatinate and Brandenburg with mistrust, paralysing Imperial institutions. During 1629, another 274 suspected witches were killed in the Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another 50 in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg. Outcome of Thirty Years War The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three . It did so in a way that actually stabilized the political order of Central Europe and provided for a European balance of power that … A better question would be who DIDN'T take part. Food shortages were worsened by an explosion in the rodent population; Bavaria was over-run by wolves in the winter of 1638, its crops destroyed by packs of wild pigs the following spring. A brief treatment of the Thirty Years’ War follows. The future Pope Alexander VII and the Venetian Republic acted as mediators, with a total of 109 delegations attending at one time or other. [131], Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. In May 1618, Protestant nobles led by Count Thurn met in Prague Castle with Ferdinand's two Catholic representatives, Vilem Slavata and Jaroslav Borzita. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. [69], After Tilly's death, Ferdinand turned once again to Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was over extended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürth, threatening the Swedish supply chain. In fact, the year 2018 also marks the anniversary of two interconnected events that changed European and world history forever. All parties involved in the war went nearly broke … [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. [102], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'; Mazarin insisted on excluding the Burgundian Circle from the treaty of Münster, allowing France to continue its campaign against Spain in the Low Countries, a war that continued until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. 2. The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex, and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. Dame Veronica Wedgwood concluded her celebrated account of the Thirty Years War, first published in 1938, by claiming it 'solved no problem' and was 'the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict.' Timeline of the Thirty Years War. This was due to the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, the shifting locations of battle fronts, as well as the displacement of rural populations and migration into already crowded cities. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. This is a chronology of the 30 Years War in an outline form. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. The deadly clashes ravaged Europe; 20 percent of the total population of Germany died … [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. [89], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. The Thirty Years War was a series of battles that were fought primarily on German soil but also in Central Europe. The standing army was scarcely a novel … It was in part a political war among shifting alliances of … The Thirty Years’ War began when three representatives of the Holy Roman Empire were thrown out the window of the royal castle in Prague in 1618, sparking a continent-wide religious conflict. These are the 400th anniversary of the start of the Thirty Years’ War… It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. The experiences of the Thirty Years War were instrumental in bringing this about; standing armies were exceptional in 1600 but commonplace within a century. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November. There were wide regional variations; in the Duchy of Württemberg, the number of inhabitants fell by nearly 60%. [81], In 1643, Frederick III of Denmark re-entered the conflict as an Imperial ally, threatening the Swedes with a war on two fronts. At the same time, the Swedes under Johan Banér marched into Brandenburg; victory at Wittstock on 4 October 1636 regained most of the ground lost after Nördlingen. In May 1618, these factors combined to bring about the Bohemian Revolt. [25] Some historians who view the war primarily as an international conflict argue this marks the beginning of the conflict, since Spain and Austria backed the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. 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