Most scholars associate the start of the medieval period with the fall of the Roman Empire in 410AD. The bamboo allowed the mold to be flexible, but the European rigid wire mold, was better suited to the formation of rag fiber. The Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century BC, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest. Because of the war, many artists, intellectuals and writers, especially those from France and Germany, moved to Switzerland, which was a neutral country. Among the issues within the history of literature with which book history can be seen to intersect are: the development of authorship as a profession, the formation of reading audiences, the constraints of censorship and copyright, and the economics of literary form. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen Scheherazade. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. Among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, Zuo Zhuan is a gem of classical Chinese prose. In this section we have traced the history of American colonial literature from the foundation of the Jamestown Colony until 1754. Diverse as they are, European literatures, like … In the 13th century, Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. Literature in the Medieval Period. The term itself was coined in the 1840s, in England, but the movement had been around since the late 18th century, primarily in Literature and Arts. WWI had a huge impact on European literature and art between 1919 and 1939. Got a question on your topic of research? After 1914, the history of the European Empires—a third phase—is one of gradual decolonization and independence, with the vast majority of … Nahyan A.G. Western literature, history of literatures in the languages of the Indo-European family, along with a small number of other languages whose cultures became closely associated with the West, from ancient times to the present. The series of gruesome plays began with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy (1585) and included Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus (1594), Hamlet (1600), and Macbeth (1605). Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century BC and mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity. Before 1607 Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare had written, and before 1620 the King James version of the Bible had been produced. With the fear of contagion a distant bad memory, and people eager to get out of their homes and see more of the world, internationa… [citation needed]. There was a high demand for Chinese tea, silk and porcelain in the British market. Several threads can be said to tie the entire European Renaissance together across the three centuries which it spanned. The deliberate suppression of texts (and often their authors) by organisations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Philosophy, fine arts, architecture, law, and the natural sciences are more unevenly included, though the library owns many important individual works in these fields. From the 16th to the 18th century Commedia dell'arte performers improvised in the streets of Italy and France. A manuscript illustration depicts a disc-shaped flying object similar to a flying saucer.[32]. The vision of Satan that Dante presented would prove heavily influential, though today it's been eclipsed by the one presented by John Milton in Paradise Lost (1667). Metaphysical poetry is characterised by a spirit of intellectual investigation of the spiritual, rather than the mystical reverence of many earlier English poems. The form of writing now commonplace across the world—the novel—originated from the early modern period and grew in popularity in the next century. The Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men[1] over a period of centuries, with many scholars concluding that the Hebrew canon was solidified by about the 3rd century BC. Much of the early literature of this period consists of sermons, … Sanskrit declines in the early 2nd millennium, late works such as the Kathasaritsagara dating to the 11th century, to the benefit of literature composed in Middle Indic vernaculars such as Old Bengali, Old Hindi. Thus, a system of barter based on Indian opium was created to bridge this problem of payment. Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous. Philosophy entered literature in the dialogues of Plato, who converted the give and take of Socratic questioning into written form. The primary motive of British imperialism in China in the nineteenth century was economic. In many respects, the writers of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire chose to avoid innovation in favor of imitating the great Greek authors. The word was Some of these distorted beginnings of new styles can be seen in the literature generally described as Matter of Rome, Matter of France and Matter of Britain. A new spirit of science and investigation in Europe was part of a general upheaval in human understanding which began with the European discovery of the New World in 1492 and continues through the subsequent centuries, even up to the present day. Charles Dickens, perhaps the most famous novelist in the history of English literature, was active during this time and contributed to the novel's emergence as the leading literary genre of Victorian England. In Russia, pogroms appeared where Jews would be massacred. Much of the early literature of this period consists of sermons, … The primary motive of British imperialism in China in the nineteenth century was economic. Qu Yuan is the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work and is also regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature. England had, therefore, a wonderful literature before her colonies came to America. The iroha poem, now one of two standard orderings for the Japanese syllabary, was also written during the early part of this period. By 1600 it had spread to France, England, Germany, Netherlands, Spain and other European countries. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: “In the Jewish Old Testament, there are men, things and speeches in so grand a style that Greek and Indian literature have nothing to compare to it. Romance isn't dead, but it might be nine centuries old, according to an Oxford University academic. 17th century is considered as the greatest era of Spanish and French literature where it is called Siglo de Oro and Grand Siècle respectively. Write their work in the vernacular. After the Romans withdrew, Germanic tribes invaded and spread their influence into England. This is a process that continues, and finally culminates in fantasy fiction having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. The history and literature of Continental Europe has been a specialty of the Newberry since its beginning, but like many other such broad fields, there are particular areas of great strength and others that are less well developed. Aristotle, Plato's student, wrote dozens of works on many scientific disciplines, but his greatest contribution to literature was likely his Poetics, which lays out his understanding of drama, and thereby establishes the first criteria for literary criticism. Learn more about who we are and what we do in the Newberry Blogs. This meant that the plausibility of great marvels had to be set at a greater distance of time ("long ago") and place ("far away"). Summary Romanticism, unlike the other "isms", isn't directly political. Where & When did the Renaissance begin and to which European countries did it spread? From Persian culture the book which would, eventually, become the most famous in the west is the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. American literature, both in the way it was practiced and the way it was perceived, came of age in the period between 1870 and 1920.During these years American writing distinguished itself stylistically and thematically from the European tradition to which it had been dismissively compared for more than a century. During the eighteenth-century, children's literature reflected and instilled many of the cultural norms concerning gender roles. The history and literature of Continental Europe has been a specialty of the Newberry since its beginning, but like many other such broad fields, there are particular areas of … With the fear of contagion a distant bad memory, and people eager to get out of their homes and see more of the world, internation… England had, therefore, a wonderful literature before her colonies came to America. Bamboo molds were common in China, but it was not readily available in Europe. The method used was block printing. The first newspaper appeared in 1610 in Switzerland, in the Habsburg territories in Europe in 1620, in England in 1621, in France in 1631, in Denmark in 1634 and Italy in 1636, in Sweden in 1645, and in Poland in 1661. In the 13th century, Italian authors began writing in their native vernacular language rather than in Latin, French, or Provençal. A cooling climate, disease, and political disorder each played a part in this opening period which saw Classical Mediterranean civilization eclipsed. The popularity of the work may in part be due to greater popular knowledge of history and geography since it was written. Newspapers in Amharic began to appear in 1924 and 1925, and there were translations of European literary works, including an Amharic translation of John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, by Gabra Giyorgis Terfe, that was to influence later Amharic literary work. The conservative Biedermeier style conflicts with the radical Vormärz in the turbulent period separating the end of the Napoleonic wars from the Revolutions of 1848. Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose never managed to develop to the extent that contemporary divan poetry did. Examples of early Persian proto-science fiction include Al-Farabi's Opinions of the residents of a splendid city about a utopian society, and elements such as the flying carpet.[29]. His Confessions is perhaps the first true autobiography, and it gave rise to the genre of confessional literature which is now more popular than ever. Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are difficult or impossible to date. Perhaps the most controversial and important work of the time period was a treatise printed in Nuremberg, entitled De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium: in it, the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus removed the Earth from its privileged position in the universe, which had far-reaching effects, not only in science, but in literature and its approach to humanity, hierarchy, and truth. Case Y 194 .785. The first part was published in 1605 and the second in 1615. Plays for entertainment (as opposed to religious enlightenment) returned to Europe's stages in the early modern period. The AP European History course starts at 1450, when Europe is in the midst of the Renaissance, or rebirth.It was during the Renaissance that historians first began dividing history into three parts (ancient, medieval, and modern), with modern history beginning in their time. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together. Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing." Alliterative verse: 8th - 14th century: The story of English literature begins with the Germanic tradition of the Anglo-Saxon settlers. Newspapers in Amharic began to appear in 1924 and 1925, and there were translations of European literary works, including an Amharic translation of John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, by Gabra Giyorgis Terfe, that was to influence later Amharic literary work. The consequent changes in Europe and the world eroded many beliefs in Imperialism, a trend enhanced by the Second World War. [5], This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. The History Of European Colonization Of The Americas Sometime during the 11th century was the first of many European colonization endeavors. Where It All Began? A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. How did Europeans change the Americas? In the millennium or so that intervened between Rome's fall and the Florentine Renaissance, medieval literature focused more and more on faith and faith-related matters, in part because the works written by the Greeks had not been preserved in Europe, and therefore there were few models of classical literature to learn from and move beyond. The very first writings from ancient Sumer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature—the same is true of some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics or the thousands of logs from ancient Chinese regimes. Tudor dynasty began. It might be viewed as a parody of Le Morte d'Arthur (and other examples of the chivalric romance), in which case the novel form would be the direct result of poking fun at a collection of heroic folk legends. For the next century, works of horror would still be largely tied to religion. [16] "The City of Brass" and "The Ebony Horse" can be considered early examples of proto-science fiction. The most famous authors beside playwrights include Jean de La Fontaine and Charles Perrault known primarily for their fables. In November 1095, Pope Urban II preached the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. This epic poem of the 8th century is in Anglo-Saxon, now more usually described as Old English.It is incomprehensible to a reader … Ignored by mainstream literary criticism, these genres develop their own establishments and critical awards, such as the Nebula Award (since 1965), the British Fantasy Award (since 1971) or the Mythopoeic Awards (since 1971). [citation needed], Among other innovations in Arabic literature was Ibn Khaldun's perspective on chronicling past events—by fully rejecting supernatural explanations, Khaldun essentially invented the scientific or sociological approach to history. Principally concerned with the production, circulation, and reception of texts and their material forms, book history seeks to connect forms of textuality with their material aspects. This period began with a demographic downturn at the end of the Roman imperial era, with European populations shrinking and many cities and rural estates abandoned. This era contained the Hundred Years War, which ended in 1453, and the Black Death, which eliminated nearly one-third of Europe’s population. Aristophanes, a comic playwright, defines and shapes the idea of comedy almost as Aeschylus had shaped tragedy as an art form—Aristophanes' most famous plays include the Lysistrata and The Frogs. Read more below: The 17th century. It all began at the city's Cabaret Voltaire in February 1916. By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queenehad a strong influence on English literature but was eventually overshadowed by the lyrics of … It is Dafne, (now lost) written by Jacopo Peri for an elite circle of literate Florentine humanists who gathered as the "Camerata". Write their work in the vernacular. Very little was published at first, and children often turned, as always, to adult literature for adventure and excitement. It began in Italy in the 1300's. Other refiners of playwriting were Sophocles and Euripides. The history of European literature and of each of its standard periods can be illuminated by comparative consideration of the different literary languages … In the middle of the century the king of England was overthrown and a republic declared. Children's literature of the period assisted such attempts to enforce class differences. Reflecting the aristocratic atmosphere, the poetry was elegant and sophisticated and expressed emotions in a rhetorical style. These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, a candidate for the title of "first novel in English". These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century. Italy, France, and Germany are best represented. The 15th century, however, also brought Johann Gutenberg and his invention of the printing press, an innovation (for Europe, at least) that would change literature forever. Sophocles is credited with skillfully developing irony as a literary technique, most famously in his play Oedipus Rex. Had nothing occurred to change literature in the 15th century but the Renaissance, the break with medieval approaches would have been clear enough. Case Y 194.785. Several threads can be said to tie the entire European Renaissance together across the three centuries which it spanned. Around 400 AD the Prudenti Psychomachia began the tradition of allegorical tales. Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men, The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_literature&oldid=993633078, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 17:13. Literature in the Medieval Period. Petrarch popularized the sonnet as a poetic form; Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron made romance acceptable in prose as well as poetry; François Rabelais rejuvenates satire with Gargantua and Pantagruel; Michel de Montaigne single-handedly invented the essay and used it to catalog his life and ideas. The subsequent exponential increase of opium in China between 1790 and 1832 brought about a generation of addicts and social instability. A medieval church in Rome. Printing began in Tang Dynasty China. Classical Japanese literature generally refers to literature produced during the Heian Period, what some would consider a golden era of art and literature. In 1518 the Spanish king allowed the importation of slaves directly from Africa (previously they had been Spanish-born Africans), and the Atlantic slave trade to the western hemisphere began in earnest, finally ending over three centuries later with the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888. Napoleon Bonaparte took control, made many reforms inside France, and transformed Western Europe. The middle class emerged, there are now wealthy merchants who can afford and purchase expensive goods. The new style in English poetry during the 17th century was that of the metaphysical movement. II. The Zhuangzi is composed of a large collection of creative anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables; a masterpiece of both philosophical and literary skill, it has significantly influenced writers and poets for more than 2000 years from the Han dynasty to the present. What language was troubadour poetry originally written in? Arab influences in European literature began to appear in the poetry of the early Spanish and Provençal troubadours, and, in the thirteenth century, in the French fabliaux and contes. It was published in two parts. Europeans also invented the Fence or Deckle, which keeps the paper within bonds (Hunter 1943, 115). Some lay importance to the Age of Exploration, when Europeans in the 1400s set sail across the Atlantic, looking for shorter spice routes to China and India. Bamboo molds were common in China, but it was not readily available in Europe. How did Europeans change the Americas? Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an even pace across the world. Epic poetry continued to develop with the addition of the mythologies of Northern Europe: Beowulf and the Norse sagas have much in common with Homer and Virgil's approaches to war and honor, while poems such as Dante's Divine Comedy and Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales take much different stylistic directions. Popular literature develops its own genres such as fantasy and science fiction. The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. ... Dada was an artistic and literary movement that started in Europe when World War I was going on. In 1485, William Caxton introduced England to the art of printing books, when he published Sir Thomas Malory’s Morte D’ Arthur (Norton). [6] Many imitations were written, especially in France. The first inklings of a middle class began to gain power in the cities, as trade and commerce became full enterprises in their own right. The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose. In contrast to the metaphysical poets was John Milton's Paradise Lost, an epic religious poem in blank verse. WWI had left Europe in economic ruins and misery, and a sense of disillusionment arose. The Newberry does not systematically acquire new monographs or microform sets for European history and literature. A playwright named Aeschylus changed Western literature forever when he introduced the ideas of dialogue and interacting characters to playwriting. Liturgical Jewish poetry in Hebrew flourished in Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries with the writings of Yose ben Yose, Yanai, and Eleazar Kalir[31] Later Jewish poets in Spain, Provencal, and Italy wrote both religious and secular poems in Hebrew; particularly prominent poets were the Spanish Jewish poets Solomon ibn Gabirol and Yehuda Halevi. Literacy went from the prized possession of the select few to a much broader section of the population (though by no means universal). Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, and the innumerable key texts which are believed to have been lost forever to the flames. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain, based on coal, steam, and textile mills.Political change in continental Europe was spurred by the French Revolution under the motto liberté, égalité, fraternité. Children’s books did not truly emerge as a separate branch of English literature until the mid–18th century, when merchants began publishing especially for children. In particular, the female perception in literature evolved towards more influential agent of social change. However, Britain did not possess sufficient silver to trade with the Qing Empire. Literature and cultural history are strongest, including politics, theology, Romance and Germanic philology, education, and the classics. The history of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century, succeeding the Renaissance and Early Modern periods.. In Germany, the Sturm und Drang period of the late 18th century merges into a Classicist and Romantic period, epitomized by the long era of Goethe's activity, covering the first third of the century. Other Arabian Nights tales deal with lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. Classical Tamil literature also emerged in the early historic period dating from 300 BC to 300 AD, and is the earliest secular literature of India, mainly dealing with themes such as love and war. Theatrical forms known in Spenser's time such as the Masque and the Mummers' Play are incorporated into the poem in ways which twist tradition and turn it to political propaganda in the service of Queen Elizabeth I. It is more intellectual. Vernacular literature was further popularized in Britain in the Kingdom of Wessex by Alfred the Great(r. 871-899 CE) in an attempt to encourage widespread literacy, and other nations then followed suit. A copy of the Diamond Sutra, a key Buddhist text, found sealed in a cave in China in the early 20th century, is the oldest known dated printed book, with a printed date of 868. In Denmark, the early 19th century Golden Age produced prolific literary authors such as Søren Kierkegaard and Hans Christian Andersen. In the millennium or so that intervened between Rome's fall and the Florentine Renaissance, medieval literaturefocused more and more on faith and faith-related matters, in part because the works written by the Greeks had not been preserved in Europe, and therefore there were few models of classical literature to learn from and move beyond. The metaphysical poets were John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell and others. Within the vernacular emphasis, the 1920s ushered in two American art renaissance movements one of which began with music but spread to all art forms and one of which began in regionally. The ban was lifted when the monarchy was restored with Charles II. 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